##### About the course

This course is about basic electronic circuits which include analog and digital circuits. In the analog part, you will learn about diode circuits, BJT amplifiers, Op Amp circuits. In the digital part, you will learn about the combinatorial and sequential circuits. A unique feature of this course is an extensive use of circuit simulation results in order to give a realistic picture of the circuit operation and waveforms. Assignments are designed to help you to test your understanding of the concepts which are covered in this course. A free download of a circuit simulation package will be made available to enable you to simulate circuits covered in the course and gain further insight into their functioning.

##### Learning Outcomes

After completing this course, you will be able to:

- Understand the basic operations of BJTs and amplifiers.
- Understand the working of electronic circuits.
- Design your own circuits easily.
- Simulate circuits, analyze and work with them.
- Boost your hireability through innovative and independent learning.
- Get a certificate on successful completion of the course.

##### Target Audience

The course can be taken by:

**Students:** All students who are pursuing any technical/professional courses in Electronics and Communication/Electrical Engineering.

**Teachers/Faculties:** All teachers/faculties from Electronics and Communication/Electrical Engineering domain who wish to upgrade their skills.

**Professionals:** All working professionals from the core electronics industry.

##### Why learn Basic Electronics?

Electronics has a major role to play in virtually every industry. It increases the productivity in sectors like oil, energy, and agriculture. Steel, petroleum, chemical industries depend on electronics for daily processes and functions. Electronics constitutes the largest branch of engineering. In 2002, electronics professionals had around 292,000 jobs out of which most were employed in professional, scientific, and technical services firms as well as government organizations. Some were employed by manufacturers of computer and electronic equipment & machinery, and the remainders were offered placements in firms which dealt in wholesale trade, communications, and utilities. Therefore, favorable employment opportunities are anticipated for electronic professionals especially in the service industries. Job opportunities would also result from retirement and transfers of existing electronic engineers.

##### Course Features

**24X7 Access:** You can view lectures as per your own convenience.

**Online lectures:** 33 hours of online lectures with high-quality videos.

**Hands-on practice: ** Includes source code files for hands-on practice.

**Updated Quality content:** Content is latest and gets updated regularly to meet the current industry demands.

##### Test & Evaluation

Each lecture will have a quiz containing a set of multiple choice questions. Apart from that, there will be a final test based on multiple choice questions.

Your evaluation will include the overall scores achieved in each lecture quiz and the final test.

##### Certification

Certification requires you to complete all the lectures, quizzes, and the final test. Your certificate will be generated online after successful completion of course.

##### Topics to be covered

**Module 1 - A brief history of electronics**- How was vacuum tube used as a diode and an audio amplifier?
- What is the history of ENIAC Computer and how the first transistor was made?
- What is Semiconductor technology and it has evolved?
- How a P-N junction diode is made and how MOS technology has been scaling through?
- How will a vaccum tube computer with 1 million tubes look like?

**Module 2 - Superposition**- What is the principle of Superposition?
- How is Superposition principle applied in solving electrical circuits?
- How to verify the solution of the electric circuit through SEQUEL Circuit Simulator?
- Why is the superposition principle expected to work in an electrical circuit?

**Module 3 - Useful circuit techniques-1**- What is Thevenin's Theorem?
- How to find Thevenin's resistance (Rth)?
- How to find the Thevenin equivalent of a given electrical circuit?
- How to compute Vth and Rth graphically?

**Module 4 - Useful circuit techniques-2**- How to find the Thevenin equivalent of an electric circuit with a dependent source?
- How to represent the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit into it's Norton equivalent circuit?
- What is the maximum power transfer theorem and it's application in an electrical circuit and what are it's simulation results?

**Module 5 - Phasors-1**- What is a Sinusoidal Steady State and what are phasors?
- What are the examples of Phasors and How Phasors are added?
- What is the impedance of a Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor, and what are the different types of sources?

**Module 6 - Phasors-2**- How to use phasors in circuit analysis and how phasors are applied in RL circuit?
- How are phasors applied in RC and RLC circuits?
- What is Maximum Power Transfer in Sinusoidal Steady State and it's application?

**Module 7 - RC/RL circuits in time domain-1**- What is the general solution for an RC circuit with DC sources?
- How to plot the solution as a function of time?
- What is the general solution for an RL circuit with DC sources?

**Module 8 - RC/RL circuits in time domain-2**- Can the capacitor voltage in RC circuit change suddenly?
- How to derive the analytic expression for capacitor voltage and current for a series RC circuit when a step input voltage is applied?

**Module 9 - RC/RL circuits in time domain-3**- What are the graphs for charging and discharging transients in a Series RC circuit?
- How are RC/RL circuits with piece-wise constant source analyzed?
- How are the ideas after analysis applied to RL circuits?

**Module 10 - RC/RL circuits in time domain-4**- What is the graph for the solution of an RL circuit with a piecewise constant source?
- How to obtain current and voltage in an RC circuit before and after the change of switch positions?

**Module 11 - RC/RL circuits in time domain-5**- What is the steady state solution for a series RC circuit with an input square wave?

**Module 12 - Simulation of RC circuit**- What is the simulation result of RC circuit, it's SEQUEL file and SEQUEL GUI?

**Module 13 - Diode circuits-1**- What is a Diode and it's working models?
- What is an improved diode circuit model?

**Module 14 - Diode circuits-2**- What is the working of the circuit with two diodes?
- How is the plot of input and output voltage constructed?
- How does a parallel clipper circuit work?

**Module 15 - Diode circuits-3**- How does the parallel clipper circuit operate in different cases?
- What is the input and output voltage relationship for a diode circuit?

**Module 16 - Diode circuits-4**- What is the effect of reverse bias on a diode and it's input and output voltage relationship?
- What is the VI characteristics of an ideal diode when reverse biased?
- How the circuit with two zener diodes work when connected back to back?
- What is the voltage limiter circuit?

**Module 17 - Diode circuits-5**- How the diode circuit with a capacitor works?
- What is a Peak detector circuit?
- What is a Clamper Circuit?

**Module 18 - Diode circuits-6**- How does the Clamper circuit work?
- What is a Voltage Doubler?
- How the circuit with two diodes and a capacitor works?

**Module 19 - Diode rectifiers-1**- What are the diode rectifiers?
- What are Half wave and full wave bridge rectifiers without filters?
- What is a Half-wave rectifier with a capacitor filter?

**Module 20 - Diode rectifiers-2**- How a half wave rectifier with a capacitor filter works?

**Module 21 - Diode rectifiers-3**- What is the peak diode current in diode rectifiers?
- How the full wave bridge rectifier with a capacitor works?
- How half-wave is different from Full-wave (bridge) rectifiers with the capacitive filter?

**Module 22 - Bipolar Junction Transistor-1**- What is a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)?
- How BJT operates in active mode?

**Module 23 - Bipolar Junction Transistor-2**- What is the circuit of a simple BJT?
- What is the Ebers-Moll model for a PNP transistor?
- How Ebers-Moll model in active mode works?

**Module 24 - Bipolar Junction Transistor-3**- What are the VI characteristics of a BJT?
- How of a BJT circuit works?

**Module 25 - BJT amplifier-1**- What is the basic operation of a BJT amplifier?
- How biasing of BJT amplifiers is done?

**Module 26 - BJT amplifier-2**- What is a BJT inverter?
- How are BJT amplifiers biased?
- What is a simple biasing scheme in BJT amplifier?

**Module 27 - BJT amplifier-3**- What is the improved biasing scheme in BJT amplifier?
- How to add signal to bias and RC circuit with DC and AC sources?
- How a resistor, capacitor and voltage sources work in the Sinusoidal steady state?
- How RC circuit works with a combination of DC and AC sources?

**Module 28 - BJT amplifier-4**- What is a common emitter amplifier?
- What are the different models of BJT?

**Module 29 - BJT amplifier-5**- What is the small signal model in BJT?
- How common emitter amplifier works?

**Module 30 - BJT amplifier-6**- What are the other aspects of a BJT and common emitter amplifier?
- What is the frequency response of the common emitter amplifier?

**Module 31 - BJT amplifier-7**- What is the general representation of an Amplifier?
- What is the Voltage Gain (Av), Input Resistance (Rin) and Output Resistance (Ro)?
- What is a common emitter amplifier with the partial bypass?

**Module 32 - Introduction to op-amps**- What are Op-Amps?
- What is the equivalent circuit of an Op-Amp?
- What is the circuit of an Op-Amp in an Op-Amp (Linear region)?

**Module 33 - Op-amp circuits-1**- How does Op-Amp operate in Linear region?
- How is OP-Amp implemented as an inverting amplifier?
- How to determine whether an Op-Amp circuit is inverting or non inverting?

**Module 34 - Op-amp circuits-2**- What is a non-inverting amplifier and what are the loading effects?
- What is the input resistance of an Op-Amp and a non-inverting amplifier?
- What is the Output resistance in case of an Op-Amp buffer?

**Module 35 - Op-amp circuits-3**- What are the different working examples of an Op-Amp and how it is implemented as a Summer?
- How are the resistance values chosen?

**Module 36 - Difference amplifier**- What are common mode and differential mode voltages and what is Common Mode Rejection Ration (CMRR)?
- What is a Difference Amplifier and how it works?

**Module 37 - Instrumentation amplifier-1**- What is the working of a difference amplifier?
- What is the effect of resistance mismatch on common mode component and what is the circuit for Instrumentation amplifier?

**Module 38 - Instrumentation amplifier-2**- How instrumentation amplifier works and what is its common mode rejection performance?
- How current to voltage conversion is done?
- How is Op-Amp implemented as an integrator?

**Module 39 - Op-amp nonidealities-1**- What are the non-idealities of Op-Amp and what is the offset voltage in practical Op-Amp?
- What is the effect of Offset voltage on an inverting amplifier and integrator?
- What is the input bias current?

**Module 40 - Op-amp nonidealities-2**- What is the effect of bias currents on an inverting amplifier?
- What is the effect of bias currents on an integrator?
- What are filters and their examples?

**Module 41 - Bode plots-1**- What is deciBel (dB) and how it is calculated?
- What is Bode plot for a simple transfer function?
- What are the variations in magnitude and phase of transfer function?

**Module 42 - Bode plots-2**- How is the Bode plot constructed for a simple circuit?
- What is the contribution of a pole in magnitude and phase Bode plots?
- What is the contribution of a zero in magnitude and phase Bode plots?
- What is the contribution of K (constant), s and s2?

**Module 43 - Bode plots-3**- How to construct a bode plot by combining different terms in the transfer function?
- How to compare the results of Bode approximation with the actual magnitude and phase plots?
- How to compute the transfer function using SEQUEL GUI?

**Module 44 - Op-amp filters**- What are the different practical filter circuit and what are High Pass and Low pass filters?
- What are active filters and their examples?
- What is a graphic equalizer and it's example?

**Module 45 - Simulation of op-amp filter**- How to simulate an Op-Amp filter and plot the magnitude of the transfer function with frequency?

**Module 46 - Precision rectifiers-1**- What is a Half wave rectifier?
- What is the application of a super diode or the half-wave precision rectifier?
- How to use a peak detector for AM demodulation?
- What are clipping and clamping?

**Module 47 - Precision rectifiers-2**- What is a precision clipping circuit?
- What is a precision clamping circuit?
- What is the speed limit of a half wave rectifier based on the super diode?

**Module 48 - Precision rectifiers-3**- What is an improved Half-wave precision rectifier?
- What is a Full-wave precision rectifier?
- What is the meaning of Wave shaping?
- What is the spectrum of input and output voltages?

**Module 49 - Simulation of the triangle-to-sine converter**- What is a triangle-to-sine wave converter?
- How to simulate triangle-to-sine wave converter circuit?

**Module 50 - Schmitt triggers-1**- What is a positive feedback in an inverting and non-inverting amplifier?
- What is inverting Schmitt trigger?
- What is non-inverting Schmitt trigger?

**Module 51 - Schmitt triggers-2**- What is a comparator and how it works?
- How is Schmitt trigger used for waveform generation?

**Module 52 - Schmitt triggers-3**- How Schmitt trigger circuit allows threshold voltages to be shifted using a reference voltage?
- What are sinusoidal oscillators?
- What is the example of a gain limiting network?

**Module 53 - Sinusoidal oscillators-1**- What is a Wien bridge oscillator?
- What is a phase shift oscillator?

**Module 54 - Sinusoidal oscillators-2**- How is gain limiting network used for amplitude control?
- What are the frequency response of an Inverting amplifier and a realistic Op-Amp 741?

**Module 55 - Introduction to digital circuits**- What is an analog and digital signal and what is a digital circuit and it's example?
- What are the different logical operations?
- What is the history of boolean algebra and what are De Morgan's theorem and distributive laws?

**Module 56 - Boolean algebra**- What are the different boolean algebra theorems and what is the principle of duality and it's example?
- How logical functions are expressed in Sum of Products (SOP) and Product of Sum (POS) form?
- What are "minterms", "maxterms" and "don't care" condition?

**Module 57 - Karnaugh maps**- What is a Karnaugh map (K-map) and how it is constructed?
- How are K maps constructed for three and four variables?

**Module 58 - Combinatorial circuits-1**- What is Binary number system and how binary numbers are added?
- How is Half and the full adder is implemented?
- How are logical functions implemented only with NAND gates?
- How are logical functions implemented only with NOR gates?

**Module 59 - Combinatorial circuits-2**- What is a Multiplexer and how to describe the basic functionality of a MUX using simulation example?
- What are Active high, active low inputs/outputs and Enable (E) pin and how 16-to-1 MUX is constructed using two 8-to-1 MUXs?
- How is a logical function implemented using a 16-to-1 MUX?

**Module 60 - Combinatorial circuits-3**- How is a logical function implemented using an 8-to-1 MUX?
- What is a Demultiplexer and how it's functionality is described using simulation example?
- What are a Decoder and Binary-coded Decimal (BCD) encoding?
- What is the circuit for 7 segment display and BCD-to-7 segment decoder?

**Module 61 - Introduction to sequential circuits**- What is an Encoder and 74147 decimal-to-BCD priority encoder?
- What are a Sequential Circuit and NAND latch (RS Latch)?

**Module 62 - Latch and flip-flop**- How NOR and NAND latch work?
- What is the application of RS Latch?
- What is the "Clock" and clocked RS latch and what are edge triggered flip-flops?

**Module 63 - JK flip-flop**- What is the JK Flip-Flop in Master-Slave configuration, it's example and operation?
- What is negative and positive edge triggered flip-flops?

**Module 64 - D flip-flop**- How to obtain various waveforms from a simple circuit with more than one JK flip-flop?
- What are a D flip-flop and shift register?

**Module 65 - Shift registers**- How parallel transfer between the shift registers can be achieved and what is a bidirectional shift register it's operation?
- How multiplication is obtained using shift and add?
- What are counters and its examples?

**Module 66 - Counters-1**- What is a Binary Ripple Counter and how does it work?
- What is a Decade Counter?
- What is the Synchronous counter?

**Module 67 - Counters-2**- How to design synchronous counters to satisfy the transition table?
- How are two counters combined?

**Module 68 - Simulation of a synchronous counter**- How to design a synchronous counter with the given transition table?
- How is the design verified with simulation?

**Module 69 - 555 timer**- What is a 555 timer IC and it's circuit representation?
- What are the 555 monostable multivibrators and its operation?
- What is the 555 astable multivibrator?
- How to simulate an Oscillator using 555 timers?

**Module 70 - Digital-to-analog conversion-1**- What is a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)?
- How DAC is implemented using binary-weighted registers and it's example?

**Module 71 - Digital-to-analog conversion-2**- What are the R-2R ladder network and it's Thevenin equivalent?
- How to make a DAC using an Op-Amp and R-2R network and what is the settling time in DAC?
- What is Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and what is a flash ADC?

**Module 72 - Analog-to-digital conversion**- How is the sampling of the input signal done in ADC?
- What is the Successive Approximation ADC?
- What is Counting ADC (digital-ramp ADC) and Tracking ADC?
- What is Dual-Slope ADC?

**Basic Electronics - Final Quiz**